Bailouts and Moral Hazard

Notes made for remarks to the Federalist Society on November 13, 2009 

It’s an honor to be on this panel with all these distinguished people. But I’m afraid I was invited because I’m considered soft on bailouts. That’s a terrible reputation to have. What is it they say about poker? “If you look around the table and you can’t tell who the sucker is, it’s you.”

The case for bailouts is usually systemic risk. You do it, not for the bailout-ee, but to limit the collateral damage, damage to the whole “system.” The case against bailouts is that by saving management and owners from the consequences of their excessive risk-taking or bad decisions, you create moral hazard and encourage similar behavior by others.

In most of the so-called bailouts during the Panic of 2008—bunched together in September 2008—the decision-makers were not saved or rescued. Top management, directors and stockholders generally lost their jobs and much of their wealth, and were maligned in Congress and by the press.

They didn’t benefit from a “heads I win, tails you lose” proposition. They had won for a while; then they lost.

Future decision makers under similar circumstances will remember both sides of that coin and not want to go there. Public humiliation is not something you want to emulate.

Mr. Paulson, in fact, seemed eager to fire people at the top who had done no wrong specifically so that he could not be accused of creating moral hazard. The CEOs of Fannie and Freddie were following policies mandated by Congress and were not the same CEOs in place during the earlier accounting scandals. I believe the fired CEO of AIG had been on the job only a few months. And Ken Lewis of Bank of America has learned that no good deeds go unpunished.

Moral hazard did get us into this mess. The making and securitizing of subprime mortgage loans and selling those mortgage bonds all over the world was the mother of moral hazards, since mostly independent unregulated mortgage brokers made the credit decisions and unsuspecting owners of the bonds—misled by their AAA ratings—bore the risk.

Many pundits who were saying “let ‘em fail,” “let ‘em fail” later said letting Lehman Brothers fail was the biggest mistake of the crisis. I tend to agree.

There were a lot of tall dominoes, standing close together. I’m not sure the system could have survived many other failures like Lehman’s, which cost me about 40 percent of my little portfolio.

Given time, I’m sure the Treasury’s TARP program could have been better designed and executed, but under the circumstances I think it’s working pretty well for almost 700 banks caught holding mortgage-backed securities and other assets no longer trading. We only hear of the top nine or the top 19.

I won’t try to defend TARP’s use outside the financial system or the way Congress has used it to fan and pander to our worst populist instincts, to demonize bankers, and as a pretext to expand government power, violate contracts and private property rights. It has been shameful.

The public, egged on by politicians, regards TARP as the Government spending their money to support “evil doers.” Most people have no idea that the Treasury will be able to sell its preferred stock and warrants received from banks, likely at a profit.

There will be losses here and there, on individual transactions and banks, but, overall, I won’t be surprised if taxpayers come out ahead net. The Treasury has earned about 18 percent on the banks that left the program early.

The Federal Reserve’s extraordinary lending last year and security purchases this year are even more likely to earn a net profit for taxpayers. The Fed generally turns over about 90 percent of its earnings to the Treasury’s general fund. Those earnings are rising significantly with the expansion of the Fed’s balance sheet, and those earnings will benefit taxpayers. Even the individual losses here and there, to the extent there will be any, would not be a loss of existing money, but only a loss of the new money created by the transaction—an opportunity cost loss.

Skeptics make much of the Fed’s expansion of bank reserves and money and take it for granted that it will be highly inflationary. Possibly, but I doubt it.

New money must be spent before it can cause inflation. Banks are holding most of their new reserves idle as excess reserves because they are scared to death. And the public has similarly reduced the velocity, or turnover, of money sharply. With the velocity of money collapsing, and credit shrinking, rapid money expansion has not been inflationary. So far, rapid money growth has been needed to forestall deflation.

Despite some pick-up lately, both the Consumer Price Index and the Producer Price Index remain below year-ago levels. Prices for the year are down, not up.

The trick for the Fed will be to adjust money growth as velocity returns toward normal—the exit strategy.

Chairman Bernanke’s study of the Depression has convinced him that tightening monetary policy prematurely is a greater danger than tightening too late. Most pundits on financial TV seem to assume the opposite.

During the Depression the Federal Reserve increased reserve requirements on banks to “mop up” banks’ excess reserves. The banks reacted by contracting credit further. It turned out that the reserves were not considered excess by the banks themselves. They wanted an extra cushion against uncertainty.

Today, the pundits are urging the Fed to make the same mistake—to “mop up’ excess bank reserves before they are used for loans and investments that might create inflation. But the banks are holding those excess reserves voluntarily—for the same reasons they did during the depression, as precautionary balances. Just because they may be excess reserves in a regulatory sense doesn’t make them excess in a more real sense.

While I give passing marks to the Treasury’s capital injections into banks and to the Fed’s direct and indirect lending, I put the massive stimulus program on the other end of the spectrum. It reminds me of hunting wild hogs with a shotgun rather than a rifle. There is a lot of firepower, but it’s diffused–not focused enough. It has probably prevented some layoffs at the state and local levels, but at a huge cost in money, deficits, and debt.

The Fed made loans and the Treasury made investments. The stimulus program, however, was old-fashioned spending. Money spent, money gone.

The deficit as a percent of GDP has tripled and outstanding debt is headed above its recent level of about 40 percent of GDP.

Instead of targeted marginal tax-rate cuts to stimulate the private sector, we face the prospects of repeating a huge mistake made during the depression—raising taxes in a weak economy. Not only the expiration of the Bush tax-rate cuts, but also additional taxes to finance new government programs.

In the 1937-38 period during the depression, the government raised taxes to finance new government programs already put in place. They wanted to balance the budget. We face the prospect of new taxes for existing programs and new programs yet to come.

Another negative feature of the Depression that we seem to be copying is class warfare against business leaders. How that is supposed to help anything is a mystery to me. But, to my knowledge, even Roosevelt didn’t think to have a pay czar.

Another depression-era mistake we’re in danger of repeating is protectionism. We haven’t gone as far as the Smoot-Hawley tariff increase yet, but we are on a slippery slope in that direction, with the violation of the NAFTA agreement on Mexican trucks, tariffs on Chinese tires, and buy-American policies spread all over the stimulus bill.

Will we ever learn?

Comments (11)

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  1. Excellent speech. The exit strategy is the focal point of it all, but for me it’s also the Gordian knot. I suspect that cutting it won’t be as easy as it appears to be. I was able to come up myself with a few unintended consequences of different alternatives, but *unanticipated* consequences will be the real problem.
    I know that the Fed is well equipped to deal with future scenarios, but too frequently in my life (and I’m not so old) I’ve seen situations where even all the king’s horses and all the king’s men could not put it back together again…

  2. Nemo says:

    They didn’t benefit from a “heads I win, tails you lose” proposition. They had won for a while; then they lost.

    Great! (Most of them still look obscenely wealthy to me, but my standards are probably just too low.)

    Now, how about their creditors and counterparties?

  3. John B says:

    How are investors “misled” by a AAA bond rating? Who or what is responsible for making a bond’s AAA rating “midleading?” Do you believe that large banking institutions unknowingly sold “misleading” AAA rated bonds?

  4. EHROSEN says:

    Are you implying that a double dip is more likely than a V recovery? If so, I think you are right.
    Thank you for your refreshingly non judgmental perspective.

  5. T Le says:

    Thank you for your comment on cpi/ppi.
    What do you think of Dallas Fed Reserve President Fisher’s opinion on banks that are too big to fail should be broken up? What is your opinion of Rep Paul’s bill to audit the Fed?
    Thank You.

  6. surfgeezer says:

    Just came across your blog and I am impressed. Like the lack of political fervor and IMHO accurate assessment. Hope you don’t mind if I display link. The last paragraph does bother me however. The Chinese are calling us protectionist for demanding they delink and letting our dollar fall. I do not agree and after reading your blog on the dollar believe you do not feel that way. Smoot-Hawley was a mistake but we must be careful in differentiating between tariffs and demanding free markets exchange from a controlled economy even though the effect may seem the same to the Chinese.

  7. Bob McTeer says:

    To T Le:

    I’d hate to break them up, but I don’t have a solution of my own. In retrospect, maybe repealing the Glass-Steagall Act was a mistake, especially not amending the regulatory structure at the same time. For the record, I supported the repeal.

    Ron Paul’s proposal is coming up next.


  8. Bob McTeer says:


    You have a point on creditors and counter parties.

    Mr. Greenberg, former AIG CEO, was on the panel as well. He complained about the Fed not negotiating a better deal with AIG’s CDS counterparties. Apparently AIG had already been negotiating for concessions. Ironically, though, the rationale for the “bailout” was not to save the “bailout–ee” but to prevent the collateral damage. To bail out a firm then start picking winners and losers among the counterparties is sort of a contradiction–albeit an expensive one.

  9. Bob McTeer says:


    You are absolutely correct about distinguishing between tariffs and other protectionist measures and market-determined exchange rates.

    I find it odd that financial commentary these days is moving away from the concept of market determined exchange rates, even though it is a Milton Friedman idea that is consistent with his free market views on other things.

    Thanks for the comment and the link.


  10. CasaLara says:

    It is such a “CRIME” what we have let happen to our financial system. And, to put Tim Geitner in charge of our finances is even crazier! But, remember, only 10% of Obama’s administration ever ran a company – so they are flying by the seat of their pants!! Their “Chicago thug mentality” has shown to be less than honorable in any way. Do you ever remember any administration ushering people in and out due to their “character” and lack of financial responsibility? And that’s’ just the ones we know about. I bet if we look deeper into most of the White House staff we would find less than stellar pasts. With those kind of staff members, what do we expect? Certainly not a well oiled machine that they claimed to have during the campaign. That campaign was orchestrated by Soros and his wealthy friends. Obama is simply a puppet for their whims! They aren’t’ serious about creating jobs and doing the right thing for the financial market – If they were, they would have made sure the stimulus actually had “shovel ready projects” – you know, the kind that fix our roads and bridges – our sewers and other underground pipes. These things WILL keep detieriating and when they get really bad, they will collapse! Just creating those kind of jobs would help strengthen our cities – and, gee, I don’t know, maybe even give people out of work real jobs – instead, they threw a bunch of money to the base that helped get them elected!! And those people created short term jobs – if any. Museums and non-profits that received stimulus money didn’t help our economy! Obama wants the country to be helpless and controllable – there is NO other reason for his actions. Think about it people. We are all alone in our efforts to keep our country’s freedoms and give our kids a real future. We must come together and not let the liberals turn us into a New Zealand. Their socialist government controls even the amount of energy they use – all the way down to amount of lights allowed on at nite. I have visited New Zealand and couldn’t believe how conrolled the people were. It’s beautiful – north and south island – but they are not free to live their lives like we are used to. I do not want to live like that, with government control. Wake up America! Our financial situation is just the tip of the iceberg! Obama wants control of financials, energy and healthcare. ASk yourself WHY???

  11. geowlySew says:

    Very Interesting!
    Thank You!